There’s growing interest in grassroots programs aimed at reducing community violence at a time when violent crime around the country is on the rise. For example, violence interrupter programs use homegrown peacemakers from communities plagued by violence to ease tense situations. Other programs focus primarily on issues such as poverty and education. These strategies to curb violence recognize the fallout on American society from decades of “tough on crime” policies. But even as President Joe Biden encourages big-city mayors to use some of their COVID-19 relief funds to boost community violence intervention programs, there’s no widely agreed-upon model for what works.